Training Spanish speakers to produce English lexical schwa in a formal learning context: carry over effects to a new context and to novel stimuli
This paper explores the effect of two training methods and the generalization of their potential gain. Two groups of Spanish learners of English underwent instruction on English schwa for 3 months: one group underwent perceptual training, based on discrimination and identification tasks, and the other group received production training, which provided articulatory and visual feedback. Production performance included 20 words containing contrastive schwa (trained), those same 20 words produced in a carrier sentence, and 8 new stimuli. Results indicated that production performance significantly improved after training. Improvement also generalized to a new context, embedding sentence, and also transferred to untrained words.