Language-related episodes by young CLIL learners: A review of task modality effects

Language Teaching for Young Learners

Task modality has been found to affect the production, nature and resolution of Language Related Episodes (LREs). However, a substantial number of investigations have been conducted with adult learners (i.e. García Mayo & Azkarai, 2016; Niu, 2009; Payant & Kim, 2019), except for García Mayo and Imaz Agirre (2019) with child learners. Besides, there is a lack of investigations examining the incorporation of LREs in the final output of oral and written tasks. In addition, previous studies have not controlled for either the different levels of accuracy that both task modalities demand as a consequence of their on-line and off-line nature or the opportunity for revising the output equally in both modalities. This paper compiles the findings from various studies conducted with the same cohorts of 5th and 6th primary school learners that have overcome the aforementioned methodological limitations, all of which will make possible a more comprehensive understanding of modality effects in terms of LRE production. In addition, it tackles the relationship between task-modality and variables such as the use of previously known languages, pair dynamics and pairing method (gender, proficiency and self-selection). Likewise, it adds to the scant research on young learners’ attitudes towards the tasks administered.